James Petras, Between Insurrection and Reaction: Evo Morales' Pursuit of 'Normal Capitalism'
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Brian Holmes, One World, One Dream
“ ..the global extension of the Anglo-American technological and organizational toolkit has given rise to a world civilization, what Félix Guattari called “integrated world capitalism.”2 The second is that this overall pattern of world civilization can only be governed and normed at a regional or continental scale, using cultural and political resources that are specific to that scale. The continental scale – whether a nation-state like India or China, or a regional bloc like the Russian Federation or the EU – has become decisive in the world today, because only that scale can fully internalize, but also resist global forces.
Resistance, this context, means the attempt to impose different societal norms at the specifically continental level, according to whatever social or political power imperatives have taken hold there. What confronts us then are intersecting realities: something like “transnational capitalism with Chinese characteristics.” An entire political economy lodges in the tension of these intersections. The unanswered question is how those tensions are expressed and elaborated by individuals and smaller groups: how the emergence of a world society is tangled up with the production of new subjectivities.
The word individual signals the micropolitical dimension, where cultural commentary is now typically confined as a celebration of subjective choice. Yet individualism is no way the opposite of globalism.
Following sociologists like Ulrich Beck, I’ll be arguing that globalism is inseparable from a process of intensive individualization which is its other face, the flip side of the same basic currency.3 This is the symbolic meaning of the slogan, “One World, One Dream.” When we look at the highly original and highly commodified practices of the creative industries, it is globalism that we are really seeing, in the expression of each singular dream.
Global individualism results from the monetization and contractualization of social relations, which is an essential part of the neoliberal economic order
. The increasingly authoritarian forms of governance that are emerging all over the globe can be conceived as techniques for managing that risk, each time in a specific fashion that is inextricable from a particular social and cultural history Artistic invention has been given an operational role in economic development, fulfilling one of the long-held ambitions of the modernist vanguards. But the willingness of governments to use aesthetics as a form of psycho-engineering – and the efforts that corporations have expended, since the time of Freud’s nephew Edward Bernays, in the quest to manipulate their clients’ dreams27 – make the dangers all too obvious.
Critical interpretations of the new cultural forms, and of the social and political frames in which they create their effects and meanings, will be crucial in opening the imaginary space where people can gain some kind of relative autonomy, some capacity to be their own steersman. But that critique must reach all the way into the images themselves, it must be transformative. The stakes of these new images are tremendous.
When state-capitalist power begins manufacturing your dreams, then art becomes the primary process of politics.
The historical experience of repression has been internalized as the everyday reality of self-censorship, which remains a palpable force in the lives of an overwhelming majority of the population, including the artists and intellectuals.
Here is where the ideologues of liberal democracy take up their rhetorical positions, in defence of Western freedom. But I don’t propose to join them. A similar, if less dramatic, internalization of repression occurred in the Western societies after 1968, and in the former Soviet bloc in the course of the 1990s.
Today it is the economic imperative, not the state, that commands in detail what should or should not be represented by the creative industries. The result has been a gradual neutralization of ethical and political speech. This gap at the heart of self-expression is now being exported across the earth. What’s missing in all our societies are the psychic and social resources for resistance to the present.”
Shamanism is present in Achuar lifestyle as witchcraft is occasionally practiced. An example of this is their form of karma that entitles a person to revert any harmful incidents or material another sent. Animals, again, are significant for the Achuar who possess a close bond with nature. The only way for a hunter to be successful is to live in harmony with the game he hunts and with its guardian spirits. He must follow these two rules: taking these animals with moderation and showing respect to the animals he kills. The Achuar believe that most creatures have the ability to speak with one another in their own way. This is sometimes experienced during soul journeys, which are induced by hallucinogenic drinks. Dreams are essential for the Achuar as they are not only revealing but also can be foretelling. This group has an omen system where it is usually insisted upon to have a dream before hunting.
Self-control is a fundamental aspect of Achuar beliefs, which is taught at a young age. Men exercising discipline to show will power and strength and the best place to display this is in their own home. Examples of self-control would be avoiding gluttony, being able to go without sleep, and not wasting anything. As well, another form of control would be over their expressions and attitudes, especially in front of visitors. Evading eye contact is key or else a sense of aggression might arise and mouths are covered when speaking. Saliva is the only product of the body that is publicly exposed. This is because female saliva is believed to be a source of fermentation of the manioc beer and male saliva is socially incorporated into the speech of a conversation.
Gardens are watched over by the spirit of gardens, Nunkui. Women sing anents, magical songs, as a medium to communicate with their plants, Nunkui, and other particular objects. The songs are extremely personal so they are either sung in the head or on an instrument, but always in secret. Each anent has basically the same melodic structure but different lyrics. Yet gardens can also be perilous at times, specifically manioc which is believed to have traits of vampirism. Children are the main targets of the manioc and thus are not allowed to enter a garden without supervision. Blood is precious in the eyes of the Achuar who believe there is a finite amount of blood in each person and when lost it can never be replaced, therefore quickening death.
Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado
DiegoCevallos, RELIGION-LATIN AMERICA: Indigenous Peoples Divided by Faith
Alan Garcia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Garcia
Náboženství a původní obyvatelstvo v Latinské Americe
Aymara Socialist Group, Grupo Aymara Socialista
Jazyk Adamův a Andská logika
The language of the Aymara, who live in the Andes highlands of Bolivia, Peru and Chile, has been noticed by Westerners since the earliest days of the Spanish conquest. A Jesuit wrote in the early 1600s that Aymara was particularly useful for abstract ideas, and in the 19th century it was dubbed the "language of Adam." More recently, Umberto Eco has praised its capacity for neologisms, and there have even been contemporary attempts to harness the so-called "Andean logic" – which adds a third option to the usual binary system of true/false or yes/no – to computer applications.
With the Future Behind Them: Convergent Evidence From Aymara Language and Gesture in the Crosslinguistic Comparison of Spatial Construals of Time Rafael E. Núñez, Eve Sweetser. Cognitive Science 30: 1–49 ZDE
It is cited by the author Umberto Eco in The Search for the Perfect Language as a language of immense flexibility, capable of accommodating many neologisms. Ludovico Bertonio published Arte de la lengua aymara in 1603. He remarked that the language was particularly useful for expressing abstract concepts. In 1860 Emeterio Villamil de Rada suggested it was "the language of Adam" (la lengua de Adán). Iván Guzmán de Rojas has suggested that it be used as an intermediary language for computerised translation.
Almara language - wiki ZDE
Revalorization of Culture and Identity
When the rural Aymara migrate to El Alto they experience a cultural aliention as their culture and identity is contested by the global influences and western values of the city. The migrants have to reconstruct their identity in a process of identity-formation, which can be located on a range between the opposing tendencies of assimilation and revalorization. Revalorization or to revalue, is to assign a new value to something, in this case Aymara culture and identity. Revalorization works as a resistance to assimilation and the globalization of culture. This is a case study of revalorization among urban Aymara through the work and experiences of local organizations.
Revalorization of Culture anf Identity
Indigenous Resistence BRAZIL: Indigenous Resistance Movement Defends Traditional Beliefs